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Regulation Z


The corresponding section of Supplement I (Official Staff Interpretations) for this section is found below.


Sec. 226.1 Authority, purpose, coverage, organization, enforcement and liability.

The Federal Reserve Board's Regulation Z (12 CFR Part 226) has been republished effective December 30, 2011, at 12 CFR Part 1026 as one of the regulations transferred to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau under the Dodd-Frank Act. This section of the FRB regulation was republished as §1026.1 of the Bureau's regulation.

(a) Authority . This regulation, known as Regulation Z, is issued by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to implement the federal Truth in Lending Act, which is contained in title I of the Consumer Credit Protection Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.). This regulation also implements title XII, section 1204 of the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987 (Pub. L. 100-86, 101 Stat. 552). Information- collection requirements contained in this regulation have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under the provisions of 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. and have been assigned OMB No. 7100-0199.

(b) Purpose. The purpose of this regulation is to promote the informed use of consumer credit by requiring disclosures about its terms and cost. The regulation also includes substantive protections. It gives consumers the right to cancel certain credit transactions that involve a lien on a consumer’s principal dwelling, regulates certain credit card practices, and provides a means for fair and timely resolution of credit billing disputes. The regulation does not generally govern charges for consumer credit, except that several provisions in Subpart G set forth special rules addressing certain charges applicable to credit card accounts under an open-end (not home-secured) consumer credit plan. The regulation requires a maximum interest rate to be stated in variable-rate contracts secured by the consumer’s dwelling. It also imposes limitations on home-equity plans that are subject to the requirements of § 226.5b and mortgages that are subject to the requirements of § 226.32. The regulation prohibits certain acts or practices in connection with credit secured by a dwelling in § 226.36, and credit secured by a consumer’s principal dwelling in § 226.35. The regulation also regulates certain practices of creditors who extend private education loans as defined in § 226.46(b)(5).

(c) Coverage . (1) In general, this regulation applies to each individual or business that offers or extends credit when four conditions are met:

(i) the credit is offered or extended to consumers;

(ii) the offering or extension of credit is done regularly;1

(iii) the credit is subject to a finance charge or is payable by a written agreement in more than four installments; and

(iv) the credit is primarily for personal, family, or household purposes.

1 [Reserved]

(2) If a credit card is involved, however, certain provisions apply even if the credit is not subject to a finance charge, or is not payable by a written agreement in more than four installments, or if the credit card is to be used for business purposes.

(3) In addition, certain requirements of § 226.5b apply to persons who are not creditors but who provide applications for home-equity plans to consumers.

(4) Furthermore, certain requirements of § 226.57 apply to institutions of higher education.

(d) Organization . The regulation is divided into subparts and appendices as follows:

(1) Subpart A contains general information. It sets forth:

(i) the authority, purpose, coverage, and organization of the regulation;

(ii) the definitions of basic terms;

(iii) the transactions that are exempt from coverage; and

(iv) the method of determining the finance charge.

(2) Subpart B contains the rules for open-end credit. It requires that account- opening disclosures and periodic statements be provided, as well as additional disclosures for credit and charge card applications and solicitations and for home-equity plans subject to the requirements of § 226.5a and § 226.5b, respectively. It also describes special rules that apply to credit card transactions, treatment of payments and credit balances, procedures for resolving credit billing errors, annual percentage rate calculations, rescission requirements, and advertising.

(3) Subpart C relates to closed-end credit. It contains rules on disclosures, treatment of credit balances, annual percentages rate calculations, rescission requirements, and advertising.

(4) Subpart D contains rules on oral disclosures, disclosures in languages other than English, record retention, effect on state laws, state exemptions, and rate limitations.

(5) Subpart E contains special rules for mortgage transactions. Section 226.32 requires certain disclosures and provides limitations for closed-end loans that have rates or fees above specified amounts. Section 226.33 requires special disclosures, including the total annual loan cost rate, for reverse mortgage transactions. Section 226.34 prohibits specific acts and practices in connection with closed-end mortgage transactions that are subject to § 226.32. Section 226.35 prohibits specific acts and practices in connection with closed-end higher-priced mortgage loans, as defined in § 226.35(a). Section 226.36 prohibits specific acts and practices in connection with an extension of credit secured by a dwelling.

(6) Subpart F relates to private education loans. It contains rules on disclosures, limitations on changes in terms after approval, the right to cancel the loan, and limitations on co-branding in the marketing of private education loans.

(7) Subpart G relates to credit card accounts under an open-end (not home- secured) consumer credit plan (except for § 226.57(c), which applies to all open-end credit plans). Section 226.51 contains rules on evaluation of a consumer’s ability to make the required payments under the terms of an account. Section 226.52 limits the fees that a consumer can be required to pay with respect to an open-end (not home- secured) consumer credit plan during the first year after account opening. Section 226.53 contains rules on allocation of payments in excess of the minimum payment. Section 226.54 sets forth certain limitations on the imposition of finance charges as the result of a loss of a grace period. Section 226.55 contains limitations on increases in annual percentage rates, fees, and charges for credit card accounts. Section 226.56 prohibits the assessment of fees or charges for over-the-limit transactions unless the consumer affirmatively consents to the creditor’s payment of over-the-limit transactions. Section 226.57 sets forth rules for reporting and marketing of college student open-end credit. Section 226.58 sets forth requirements for the Internet posting of credit card accounts under an open-end (not home-secured) consumer credit plan.

(8) Several appendices contain information such as the procedures for determinations about state laws, state exemptions and issuance of staff interpretations, special rules for certain kinds of credit plans, a list of enforcement agencies, and the rules for computing annual percentage rates in closed-end credit transactions and total-annual- loan-cost rates for reverse mortgage transactions.

(e) Enforcement and liability. Section 108 of the act contains the administrative enforcement provisions. Sections 112, 113, 130, 131, and 134 contain provisions relating to liability for failure to comply with the requirements of the act and the regulation. Section 1204 (c) of title XII of the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987, Pub. L. No. 100-86, 101 Stat. 552, incorporates by reference administrative enforcement and civil liability provisions of sections 108 and 130 of the act.


Official Staff Interpretations

Section 226.1—Authority, Purpose, Coverage, Organization, Enforcement and Liability

1(c) Coverage.

1. Foreign applicability. Regulation Z applies to all persons (including branches of foreign banks and sellers located in the United States) that extend consumer credit to residents (including resident aliens) of any state as defined in §226.2. If an account is located in the United States and credit is extended to a U.S. resident, the transaction is subject to the regulation. This will be the case whether or not a particular advance or purchase on the account takes place in the United States and whether or not the extender of credit is chartered or based in the United States or a foreign country. Thus, a U.S. resident's use in Europe of a credit card issued by a bank in the consumer's home town is covered by the regulation. The regulation does not apply to a foreign branch of a U.S. bank when the foreign branch extends credit to a U.S. citizen residing or visiting abroad or to a foreign national abroad.

1(d) Organization.

Paragraph 1(d)(1)

1. [Reserved.]

Paragraph 1(d)(2)

1. [Reserved.]

Paragraph 1(d)(3)

1. Effective date. The Board’s amendments to Regulation Z published on May 19, 2009 apply to covered loans (including refinance loans and assumptions considered new transactions under § 226.20) for which the creditor receives an application on or after July 30, 2009.

Paragraph 1(d)(4)

1. [Reserved.]

Paragraph (1)(d)(5) .

1. Effective dates .

i. The Board’s revisions published on July 30, 2008 (the “final rules”) apply to covered loans (including refinance loans and assumptions considered new transactions under § 226.20) for which the creditor receives an application on or after October 1, 2009, except for the final rules on advertising, escrows, and loan servicing. But see comment 1(d)(3)-1. The final rules on escrow in § 226.35(b)(3) are effective for covered loans (including refinancings and assumptions in § 226.20) for which the creditor receives an application on or after April 1, 2010; but for such loans secured by manufactured housing on or after October 1, 2010. The final rules applicable to servicers in § 226.36(c) apply to all covered loans serviced on or after October 1, 2009. The final rules on advertising apply to advertisements occurring on or after October 1, 2009. For example, a radio ad occurs on the date it is first broadcast; a solicitation occurs on the date it is mailed to the consumer. The following examples illustrate the application of the effective dates for the final rules.

A. General . A refinancing or assumption as defined in § 226.20(a) or (b) is a new transaction and is covered by a provision of the final rules if the creditor receives an application for the transaction on or after that provision's effective date. For example, if a creditor receives an application for a refinance loan covered by § 226.35(a) on or after October 1, 2009, and the refinance loan is consummated on October 15, 2009, the provision restricting prepayment penalties in § 226.35(b)(2) applies. However, if the transaction were a modification of an existing obligation's terms that does not constitute a refinance loan under § 226.20(a), the final rules, including for example the restriction on prepayment penalties, would not apply.

B. Escrows . Assume a consumer applies for a refinance loan to be secured by a dwelling (that is not a manufactured home) on March 15, 2010, and the loan is consummated on April 2, 2010. The escrow rule in § 226.35(b)(3) does not apply.

C. Servicing . Assume that a consumer applies for a new loan on August 1, 2009. The loan is consummated on September 1, 2009. The servicing rules in § 226.36(c) apply to the servicing of that loan as of October 1, 2009.

ii. The interim final rule on appraisal independence in § 226.42 published on October 28, 2010 is mandatory on April 1, 2011, for open- and closed-end extensions of consumer credit secured by the consumer’s principal dwelling. Section 226.36(b), which is substantially similar to § 226.42(c) and (e), is removed effective April 1, 2011. Applications for closed-end extensions of credit secured by the consumer’s principal dwelling that are received by creditors before April 1, 2011, are subject to § 226.36(b) regardless of the date on which the transaction is consummated. However, parties subject to § 226.36(b) may, at their option, choose to comply with § 226.42 instead of § 226.36(b), for applications received before April 1, 2011. Thus, an application for a closed-end extension of credit secured by the consumer’s principal dwelling that is received by a creditor on March 20, 2011, and consummated on May 1, 2011, is subject to § 226.36(b), however, the creditor may choose to comply with § 226.42 instead. For an application for open- or closed-end credit secured by the consumer’s principal dwelling that is received on or after April 1, 2011, the creditor must comply with § 226.42.

iii. The final rule revising escrow requirements under § 226.35(b)(3) published on March 2, 2011 applies to certain closed- end extensions of consumer credit secured by the consumer's principal dwelling. See § 226.35(a). Covered transactions for which an application is received by a creditor on or after April 1, 2011 are subject to § 226.35(b)(3), as revised.

Paragraph 1(d)(6)

1. Mandatory compliance dates. Compliance with the Board's revisions to Regulation Z published on August 14, 2009 is mandatory for private education loans for which the creditor receives an application on or after February 14, 2010. Compliance with the final rules on co-branding in § § 226.48(a) and (b) is mandatory for marketing occurring on or after February 14, 2010. Compliance with the final rules is optional for private education loan transactions for which an application was received prior to February 14, 2010, even if consummated after the mandatory compliance date.

2.Optional compliance. A creditor may, at its option, provide the approval and final disclosures required under §§ 226.47(b) or (c) for private education loans where an application was received prior to the mandatory compliance date. If the creditor opts to provide the disclosures, the creditor must also comply with the applicable timing and other rules in §§ 226.46 and 226.48 (including providing the consumer with the 30-day acceptance period under § 226.48(c), and the right to cancel under § 226.48(d)). For example if the creditor receives an application on January 25, 2010 and approves the consumer's application on or after February 14, 2010, the creditor may, at its option, provide the approval disclosures under § 226.47(b), the final disclosures under § 226.47(c) and comply with the applicable requirements §§ 226.46 and 226.48. The creditor must also obtain the self-certification form as required in § 226.48(e), if applicable. Or, for example, if the creditor receives an application on January 25, 2010 and approves the consumer's application before February 14, 2010, the creditor may, at its option, provide the final disclosure under § 226.47(c) and comply with the applicable timing and other requirements of §§ 226.46 and 226.48, including providing the consumer with the right to cancel under § 226.48(d). The creditor must also obtain the self-certification form as required in § 226.48(e), if applicable.

Paragraph 1(d)(7)

1. [Reserved]






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