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1005.33—Procedures for resolving errors.

(a) Definition of error. (1) Types of transfers or inquiries covered. For purposes of this section, the term error means:

(i) An incorrect amount paid by a sender in connection with a remittance transfer unless the disclosure stated an estimate of the amount paid by a sender in accordance with § 1005.32(b)(2) and the difference results from application of the actual exchange rate, fees, and taxes, rather than any estimated amount;

(ii) A computational or bookkeeping error made by the remittance transfer provider relating to a remittance transfer;

(iii) The failure to make available to a designated recipient the amount of currency disclosed pursuant to § 1005.31(b)(1)(vii) and stated in the disclosure provided to the sender under § 1005.31(b)(2) or (3) for the remittance transfer, unless:

(A) The disclosure stated an estimate of the amount to be received in accordance with § 1005.32(a), (b)(1) or (b)(2) and the difference results from application of the actual exchange rate, fees, and taxes, rather than any estimated amounts; or

(B) The failure resulted from extraordinary circumstances outside the remittance transfer provider's control that could not have been reasonably anticipated; or

(C) The difference results from the application of non-covered third-party fees or taxes collected on the remittance transfer by a person other than the provider and the provider provided the disclosure required by § 1005.31(b)(1)(viii).

(iv) The failure to make funds available to a designated recipient by the date of availability stated in the disclosure provided to the sender under § 1005.31(b)(2) or (3) for the remittance transfer, unless the failure to make the funds available resulted from:

(A) Extraordinary circumstances outside the remittance transfer provider's control that could not have been reasonably anticipated;

(B)Delays related to a necessary investigation or other special action by the remittance transfer provider or a third party as required by the provider’s fraud screening procedures or in accordance with the Bank Secrecy Act, 31 U.S.C. 5311 et seq., Office of Foreign Assets Control requirements, or similar laws or requirements;

(C) The remittance transfer being made with fraudulent intent by the sender or any person acting in concert with the sender; or

(D) The sender having provided the remittance transfer provider an incorrect account number or recipient institution identifier for the designated recipient's account or institution, provided that the remittance transfer provider meets the conditions set forth in paragraph (h) of this section;

(v) The sender's request for documentation required by § 1005.31 or for additional information or clarification concerning a remittance transfer, including a request a sender makes to determine whether an error exists under paragraphs (a)(1)(i) through (iv) of this section.

(2) Types of transfers or inquiries not covered. The term error does not include:

(i) An inquiry about the status of a remittance transfer, except where the funds from the transfer were not made available to a designated recipient by the disclosed date of availability as described in paragraph (a)(1)(iv) of this section;

(ii) A request for information for tax or other recordkeeping purposes;

(iii) A change requested by the designated recipient; or

(iv) A change in the amount or type of currency received by the designated recipient from the amount or type of currency stated in the disclosure provided to the sender under § 1005.31(b)(2) or (3) if the remittance transfer provider relied on information provided by the sender as permitted under § 1005.31 in making such disclosure.

Official Interpretation

Section 1005.33 — Procedures for Resolving Errors

33(a) Definition of Error

1. Incorrect amount of currency paid by sender. Section 1005.33(a)(1)(i) covers circumstances in which a sender pays an amount that differs from the total amount of the transaction, including fees imposed in connection with the transfer, stated in the receipt or combined disclosure provided under § 1005.31(b)(2) or (3). Such error may be asserted by a sender regardless of the form or method of payment provided, including when a debit, credit, or prepaid card is used to fund the transfer and an excess amount is paid. For example, if a remittance transfer provider incorrectly charged a sender's credit card account for US$150, and US$120 was sent, plus a transfer fee of US$10, the sender could assert an error with the remittance transfer provider for the incorrect charge under § 1005.33(a)(1)(i).

2. Incorrect amount of currency received — coverage. Section 1005.33(a)(1)(iii) covers circumstances in which the designated recipient receives an amount of currency that differs from the amount of currency identified on the disclosures provided to the sender, except where the disclosure stated an estimate of the amount of currency to be received in accordance with § 1005.32 and the difference results from application of the actual exchange rate, fees, and taxes, rather than any estimated amounts, or the failure was caused by circumstances outside the remittance transfer provider's control. A designated recipient may receive an amount of currency that differs from the amount of currency disclosed, for example, if an exchange rate other than the disclosed rate is applied to the remittance transfer, or if the provider fails to account for fees or taxes that may be imposed by the provider or a third party before the transfer is picked up by the designated recipient or deposited into the recipient's account in the foreign country. However, if the provider rounds the exchange rate used to calculate the amount received consistent with § 1005.31(b)(1)(iv) and comment 31(b)(1)(iv)-2 for the disclosed rate, there is no error if the designated recipient receives an amount of currency that results from applying the exchange rate used, prior to any rounding of the exchange rate, to calculate fees, taxes, or the amount received rather than the disclosed rate. Section 1005.33(a)(1)(iii) also covers circumstances in which the remittance transfer provider transmits an amount that differs from the amount requested by the sender.

3. Incorrect amount of currency received — examples. For purposes of the following examples illustrating the error for an incorrect amount of currency received under § 1005.33(a)(1)(iii), assume that none of the circumstances permitting an estimate under § 1005.32 apply (unless otherwise stated).

i. A consumer requests to send funds to a relative in Mexico to be received in local currency. Upon receiving the sender's payment, the remittance transfer provider provides a receipt indicating that the amount of currency that will be received by the designated recipient will be 1180 Mexican pesos, after fees and taxes are applied. However, when the relative picks up the transfer in Mexico a day later, he only receives 1150 Mexican pesos because the exchange rate applied by the recipient agent in Mexico was lower than the exchange rate used by the provider, prior to any rounding of the exchange rate, to disclose the amount of currency to be received by the designated recipient on the receipt. Because the designated recipient has received less than the amount of currency disclosed on the receipt, an error has occurred.

ii. A consumer requests to send funds to a relative in Colombia to be received in local currency. The remittance transfer provider provides the sender a receipt stating an amount of currency that will be received by the designated recipient, which does not reflect the additional foreign taxes that will be collected in Colombia on the transfer but does include the statement required by § 1005.31(b)(1)(viii). If the designated recipient will receive less than the amount of currency disclosed on the receipt due solely to the additional foreign taxes that the provider was not required to disclose, no error has occurred.

iii. Same facts as in ii., except that the receipt provided by the remittance transfer provider does not reflect additional fees that are imposed by the receiving agent in Colombia on the transfer. Because the designated recipient will receive less than the amount of currency disclosed in the receipt due to the additional covered third-party fees, an error has occurred.

iv. A consumer requests to send US$250 to a relative in India to a U.S. dollar-denominated account held by the relative at an Indian bank. Instead of the US$250 disclosed on the receipt as the amount to be sent, the remittance transfer provider sends US$200, resulting in a smaller deposit to the designated recipient's account than was disclosed as the amount to be received after fees and taxes. Because the designated recipient received less than the amount of currency that was disclosed, an error has occurred.

v. A consumer requests to send US$100 to a relative in a foreign country to be received in local currency. The remittance transfer provider provides the sender a receipt that discloses an estimated exchange rate, other taxes, and amount of currency that will be received due to the law in the foreign country requiring that the exchange rate be set by the foreign country's central bank. When the relative picks up the remittance transfer, the relative receives less currency than the estimated amount disclosed to the sender on the receipt due to application of the actual exchange rate, fees, and taxes, rather than any estimated amounts. Because § 1005.32(b) permits the remittance transfer provider to disclose an estimate of the amount of currency to be received, no error has occurred unless the estimate was not based on an approach set forth under § 1005.32(c).

vi. A sender requests that his bank send US$120 to a designated recipient's account at an institution in a foreign country. The foreign institution is not an agent of the provider. Only US$100 is deposited into the designated recipient's account because the recipient institution imposed a US$20 incoming wire fee and deducted the fee from the amount transferred. Because this fee is a non-covered third-party fee that the provider is not required to disclose under § 1005.31(b)(1)(vi), no error has occurred if the provider provided the disclosure required by § 1005.31(b)(1)(viii).

4. Incorrect amount of currency received—extraordinary circumstances. Under § 1005.33(a)(1)(iii)(B), a remittance transfer provider's failure to make available to a designated recipient the amount of currency disclosed pursuant to § 1005.31(b)(vii) and stated in the disclosure provided pursuant to § 1005.31(b)(2) or (3) for the remittance transfer is not an error if such failure was caused by extraordinary circumstances outside the remittance transfer provider's control that could not have been reasonably anticipated. Examples of extraordinary circumstances outside the remittance transfer provider's control that could not have been reasonably anticipated under § 1005.33(a)(1)(iii)(B) include circumstances such as war or civil unrest, natural disaster, garnishment or attachment of some of the funds after the transfer is sent, and government actions or restrictions that could not have been reasonably anticipated by the remittance transfer provider, such as the imposition of foreign currency controls or foreign taxes unknown at the time the receipt or combined disclosure is provided under § 1005.31(b)(2) or (3).

5. Failure to make funds available by disclosed date of availability — coverage. Section 1005.33(a)(1)(iv) generally covers disputes about the failure to make funds available in connection with a remittance transfer to a designated recipient by the disclosed date of availability. If only a portion of the funds were made available by the disclosed date of availability, then § 1005.33(a)(1)( iv) does not apply, but § 1005.33(a)(1)(iii) may apply instead. The following are examples of errors for failure to make funds available by the disclosed date of availability (assuming that none of the exceptions in § 1005.33(a)(1)(iv)(A), (B), or (C) apply).

i. Late or non-delivery of a remittance transfer;

ii. Delivery of funds to the wrong account;

iii. The fraudulent pick-up of a remittance transfer in a foreign country by a person other than the designated recipient;

iv. The recipient agent or institution's retention of the remittance transfer, instead of making the funds available to the designated recipient.

6. Failure to make funds available by disclosed date of availability — extraordinary circumstances. Under § 1005.33(a)(1)(iv)(A), a remittance transfer provider's failure to deliver or transmit a remittance transfer by the disclosed date of availability is not an error if such failure was caused by extraordinary circumstances outside the remittance transfer provider's control that could not have been reasonably anticipated. Examples of extraordinary circumstances outside the remittance transfer provider's control that could not have been reasonably anticipated under § 1005.33(a)(1)(iv)(A) include circumstances such as war or civil unrest, natural disaster, garnishment or attachment of funds after the transfer is sent, and government actions or restrictions that could not have been reasonably anticipated by the remittance transfer provider, such as the imposition of foreign currency controls.

7. Failure to make funds available by disclosed date of availability—fraud and other screening procedures. Under § 1005.33(a)(1)(iv)(B), a remittance transfer provider’s failure to deliver funds by the disclosed date of availability is not an error if such delay is related to the provider’s or any third party’s investigation necessary to address potentially suspicious, blocked or prohibited activity, and the provider did not and could not have reasonably foreseen the delay so as to enable it to timely disclose an accurate date of availability when providing the sender with a receipt or combined disclosure. For example, no error occurs if delivery of funds is delayed because, after the receipt is provided, the provider’s fraud screening system flags a remittance transfer because the designated recipient has a name similar to the name of a blocked person under a sanctions program and further investigation is needed to determine that the designated recipient is not actually a blocked person. Similarly, no error occurs where, after disclosing a date of availability to the sender, a remittance transfer provider receives specific law enforcement information indicating that the characteristics of a remittance transfer match a pattern of fraudulent activity, and as a result, the provider deems it necessary to delay delivery of the funds to allow for further investigation. However, if a delay could have been reasonably foreseen, the exception in §1005.33(a)(1)(iv)(B) would not apply. For example, if a provider knows in time to make a disclosure that all remittance transfers to a certain geographic area must undergo screening procedures that routinely delay such transfers by two days, the provider’s failure to include the additional two days in its disclosure of the date of availability constitutes an error if delivery of the funds is indeed delayed beyond the disclosed date of availability.

8. Sender account number or recipient institution identifier error. The exception in § 1005.33(a)(1)(iv)(D) applies where a sender gives the remittance transfer provider an incorrect account number or recipient institution identifier and all five conditions in § 1005.33(h) are satisfied. The exception does not apply, however, where the failure to make funds available is the result of a mistake by a provider or a third party or due to incorrect or insufficient information provided by the sender other than an incorrect account number or recipient institution identifier, such as an incorrect name of the recipient institution.

9. Account number or recipient institution identifier. For purposes of the exception in § 1005.33(a)(1)(iv)(D), the terms account number and recipient institution identifier refer to alphanumerical account or institution identifiers other than names or addresses, such as account numbers, routing numbers, Canadian transit numbers, International Bank Account Numbers (IBANs), Business Identifier Codes (BICs)) and other similar account or institution identifiers used to route a transaction. In addition and for purposes of this exception, the term designated recipient's account in § 1005.33(a)(1)(iv)(D) refers to an asset account, regardless of whether it is a consumer asset account, established for any purpose and held by a bank, savings association, credit union, or equivalent institution. A designated recipient's account does not, however, include a credit card, prepaid card, or a virtual account held by an Internet-based or mobile telephone company that is not a bank, savings association, credit union or equivalent institution.

10. Recipient-requested changes. Under §  1005.33(a)(2)(iii), a change requested by the designated recipient that the remittance transfer provider or others involved in the remittance transfer decide to accommodate is not considered an error. The exception under § 1005.33(a)(2)(iii) is available only if the change is made solely because the designated recipient requested the change. For example, if a sender requests to send US$100 to a designated recipient at a designated location, but the designated recipient requests the amount in a different currency (either at the sender-designated location or another location requested by the recipient) and the remittance transfer provider accommodates the recipient's request, the change does not constitute an error.

11. Change from disclosure made in reliance on sender information. Under the commentary accompanying § 1005.31, the remittance transfer provider may rely on the sender's representations in making certain disclosures. See, e.g., comments 31(b)(1)(iv)-1 and 31(b)(1)(vi)-1. For example, suppose a sender requests U.S. dollars to be deposited into an account of the designated recipient and represents that the account is U.S. dollar-denominated. If the designated recipient's account is actually denominated in local currency and the recipient account-holding institution must convert the remittance transfer into local currency in order to deposit the funds and complete the transfer, the change in currency does not constitute an error pursuant to § 1005.33(a)(2)(iv).

 

(b) Notice of error from sender.

(1) Timing; contents. A remittance transfer provider shall comply with the requirements of this section with respect to any oral or written notice of error from a sender that:

(i) Is received by the remittance transfer provider no later than 180 days after the disclosed date of availability of the remittance transfer;

(ii) Enables the provider to identify:

(A) The sender's name and telephone number or address;

(B) The recipient's name, and if known, the telephone number or address of the recipient; and

(C) The remittance transfer to which the notice of error applies; and

(iii) Indicates why the sender believes an error exists and includes to the extent possible the type, date, and amount of the error, except for requests for documentation, additional information, or clarification described in paragraph (a)(1)(v ) of this section.

(2) Request for documentation or clarification. When a notice of error is based on documentation, additional information, or clarification that the sender previously requested under paragraph (a)(1)(v) of this section, the sender's notice of error is timely if received by the remittance transfer provider the later of 180 days after the disclosed date of availability of the remittance transfer or 60 days after the provider sent the documentation, information, or clarification that had been requested.

Official Interpretation

33(b) Notice of Error from Sender.

1. Person asserting or discovering error. The error resolution procedures of this section apply only when a notice of error is received from the sender, and not when a notice of error is received from the designated recipient or when the remittance transfer provider itself discovers and corrects an error.

2. Content of error notice. The notice of error is effective so long as the remittance transfer provider is able to identify the elements in § 1005.33(b)(1 )(ii). For example, the sender could provide the confirmation number or code that would be used by the designated recipient to pick up the transfer, or other identification number or code supplied by the remittance transfer provider in connection with the transfer, if such number or code is sufficient for the remittance transfer provider to identify the sender (and contact information), designated recipient, and the transfer in question. For an account-based remittance transfer, the notice of error is effective even if it does not contain the sender's account number, so long as the remittance transfer provider is able to identify the account and the transfer in question.

3. Address on notice of error. A remittance transfer provider may request, or a sender may provide, the sender's or designated recipient's email address, as applicable, instead of a physical address, on a notice of error.

4. Effect of late notice. A remittance transfer provider is not required to comply with the requirements of this section for any notice of error from a sender that is received by the provider more than 180 days from the disclosed date of availability of the remittance transfer to which the notice of error applies or, if applicable, more than 60 days after a provider sent documentation, additional information, or clarification requested by the sender, provided such date is later than 180 days after the disclosed date of availability.

5. Notice of error provided to agent. A notice of error provided by a sender to an agent of the remittance transfer provider is deemed to be received by the provider under § 1005.33(b)(1)(i) when received by the agent.

6. Consumer notice of error resolution rights. Section 1005.31 requires a remittance transfer provider to include an abbreviated notice of the consumer's error resolution rights on the receipt or combined notice provided under § 1005.31( b)(2) or (3). In addition, the remittance transfer provider must make available to a sender upon request, a notice providing a full description of the sender's error resolution rights, using language set forth in Appendix A of this part (Model Form A-36) or substantially similar language.

 

(c) Time limits and extent of investigation.

(1) Time limits for investigation and report to consumer of error. A remittance transfer provider shall investigate promptly and determine whether an error occurred within 90 days of receiving a notice of error. The remittance transfer provider shall report the results to the sender, including notice of any remedies available for correcting any error that the provider determines has occurred, within three business days after completing its investigation.

(2) Remedies. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section, if, following an assertion of an error by a sender, the remittance transfer provider determines an error occurred, the provider shall, within one business day of, or as soon as reasonably practicable after, receiving the sender's instructions regarding the appropriate remedy, correct the error as designated by the sender by:

(i) In the case of any error under paragraphs (a)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section, as applicable, either:

(A) Refunding to the sender the amount of funds provided by the sender in connection with a remittance transfer which was not properly transmitted, or the amount appropriate to resolve the error; or

(B) Making available to the designated recipient, without additional cost to the sender or to the designated recipient, the amount appropriate to resolve the error;

(ii) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(iii), in the case of an error under paragraph (a)(1)(iv) of this section

(A) As applicable, either:

(1) Refunding to the sender the amount of funds provided by the sender in connection with a remittance transfer which was not properly transmitted, or the amount appropriate to resolve the error; or

(2) Making available to the designated recipient the amount appropriate to resolve the error. Such amount must be made available to the designated recipient without additional cost to the sender or to the designated recipient; and

(B) Refunding to the sender any fees imposed and, to the extent not prohibited by law, taxes collected on the remittance transfer;

(iii) In the case of an error under paragraph (a)(1)(iv) of this section that occurred because the sender provided incorrect or insufficient information in connection with the remittance transfer, the remittance transfer provider shall provide the remedies required by paragraphs (c)(2)(ii)(A)(1) and (B) of this section within three business days of providing the report required by paragraph (c)(1) or (d)(1) of this section except that the provider may agree to the sender’s request, upon receiving the results of the error investigation, that the funds be applied towards a new remittance transfer, rather than be refunded, if the provider has not yet processed a refund. The provider may deduct from the amount refunded or applied towards a new transfer any fees actually imposed on or, to the extent not prohibited by law, taxes actually collected on the remittance transfer as part of the first unsuccessful remittance transfer attempt except that the provider shall not deduct its own fee.

(iv) In the case of a request under paragraph (a)(1)(v) of this section, providing the requested documentation, information, or clarification.

Official Interpretation

33(c) Time Limits and Extent of Investigation.

1. Notice to sender of finding of error. If the remittance transfer provider determines during its investigation that an error occurred as described by the sender, the remittance provider may inform the sender of its findings either orally or in writing. However, if the provider determines that no error or a different error occurred, the provider must provide a written explanation of its findings under § 1005.33(d)(1).

2. Incorrect or insufficient information provided for transfer. The remedy in § 1005.33(c)(2)(iii) applies if a remittance transfer provider's failure to make funds in connection with a remittance transfer available to a designated recipient by the disclosed date of availability occurred because the sender provided incorrect or insufficient information in connection with the transfer, such as by erroneously identifying the designated recipient's address or by providing insufficient information such that the entity distributing the funds cannot identify the correct designated recipient. A sender is not considered to have provided incorrect or insufficient information for purposes of § 1005.33(c)(2)(iii) if the provider discloses the incorrect location where the transfer may be picked up, gives the wrong confirmation number/code for the transfer, or otherwise miscommunicates information necessary for the designated recipient to pick-up the transfer. The remedies in § 1005.33(c)(2)(iii) do not apply if the sender provided an incorrect account number or recipient institution identifier and the provider has met the requirements of § 1005.33(h) because under § 1005.33(a)(1)(iv)(D) no error would have occurred. See § 1005.33(a)(1)(iv)(D) and comment 33(a)-7.

3. Designation of requested remedy. Under § 1005.33(c)(2)(ii), the sender may generally choose to obtain a refund of funds that were not properly transmitted or delivered to the designated recipient or, request redelivery of the amount appropriate to correct the error at no additional cost unless the error is determined to have occurred because the sender provided incorrect or insufficient information. Upon receiving the sender's request, the remittance transfer provider shall correct the error within one business day, or as soon as reasonably practicable, applying the same exchange rate, fees, and taxes stated in the disclosure provided under § 1005.31(b)(2) or (3), if the sender requests delivery of the amount appropriate to correct the error and the error did not occur because the sender provided incorrect or insufficient information. The provider may also request that the sender indicate the preferred remedy at the time the sender provides notice of the error although if provider does so, it should indicate that the if the sender chooses a resend at the time, the remedy may be unavailable if the error occurred because the sender provided incorrect or insufficient information. However, if the sender does not indicate the desired remedy at the time of providing notice of error, the remittance transfer provider must notify the sender of any available remedies in the report provided under § 1005.33(c)(1) or (d)(1) if the provider determines an error occurred.

4. Default remedy. Unless the sender provided incorrect or insufficient information and § 1005.33(c)(2)(iii) applies, the remittance transfer provider may set a default remedy that the provider will provide if the sender does not designate a remedy within a reasonable time after the sender receives the report provided under § 1005.33(c)(1). A provider that permits a sender to designate a remedy within 10 days after the provider has sent the report provided under § 1005.33(c)(1) or (d)(1) before imposing the default remedy is deemed to have provided the sender with a reasonable time to designate a remedy. In the case a default remedy is provided, the provider must correct the error within one business day, or as soon as reasonably practicable, after the reasonable time for the sender to designate the remedy has passed, consistent with § 1005.33(c)(2).

5. Amount appropriate to resolve the error. For purposes of the remedies set forth in § 1005.33(c)(2)(i)(A), (c)(2)(i)(B), (c)(2)(ii)(A)(1), and (c)(2)(i)(A)(2)the amount appropriate to resolve the error is the specific amount of transferred funds that should have been received if the remittance transfer had been effected without error. The amount appropriate to resolve the error does not include consequential damages. For example, when the amount that was disclosed pursuant to § 1005.31(b)(1)(vii) was received by the designated recipient before the provider must determine the appropriate remedy for an error under § 1005.33(a)(1)(iv), no additional amounts are required to resolve the error after the remittance transfer provider refunds the appropriate fees and taxes paid by the sender pursuant to § 1005.33(c)(2)(ii)(B) or (c)(2)(iii), as applicable.

6. Form of refund. For a refund provided under § 1005.33(c)(2)(i)(A), (c)(2)(ii)(A)(1), or (c)(2)(ii)(B), a remittance transfer provider may generally, at its discretion, issue a refund either in cash or in the same form of payment that was initially provided by the sender for the remittance transfer. For example, if the sender originally provided a credit card as payment for the transfer, the remittance transfer provider may issue a credit to the sender's credit card account in the appropriate amount. However, if a sender initially provided cash for the remittance transfer, a provider may issue a refund by check. For example, if the sender originally provided cash as payment for the transfer, the provider may mail a check to the sender in the amount of the payment.

7. Remedies for incorrect amount paid. If an error under § 1005.33( a)(1)(i) occurred, the sender may request the remittance transfer provider refund the amount necessary to resolve the error under § 1005.33(c)(2)(i)(A) or that the remittance transfer provider make the amount necessary to resolve the error available to the designated recipient at no additional cost under § 1005.33(c)(2)(i)(B).

8. Correction of an error if funds not available by disclosed date. If the remittance transfer provider determines an error of failure to make funds available by the disclosed date occurred under § 1005.33(a)(1)(iv), it must correct the error in accordance with § 1005.33(c)(2)(ii)(A), as applicable, and refund any fees imposed for the transfer (unless the sender provided incorrect or insufficient information to the remittance transfer provider in connection with the remittance transfer), whether the fee was imposed by the provider or a third party involved in sending the transfer, such as an intermediary bank involved in sending a wire transfer or the institution from which the funds are picked up in accordance with § 1005.33(c)(2)(ii)(B).

9. Charges for error resolution. If an error occurred, whether as alleged or in a different amount or manner, the remittance transfer provider may not impose a charge related to any aspect of the error resolution process (including charges for documentation or investigation).

10. Correction without investigation. A remittance transfer provider may correct an error, without investigation, in the amount or manner alleged by the sender, or otherwise determined, to be in error, but must comply with all other applicable requirements of § 1005.33.

11. Procedure for sending a new remittance transfer after a sender provides incorrect or insufficient information. Section 1005.33(c)(2)(iii) generally requires a remittance transfer provider to refund the transfer amount to the sender even if the sender's previously designated remedy was a resend or if the provider's default remedy in other circumstances is a resend. However, if before the refund is processed, the sender receives notice pursuant to § 1005.33(c)(1) or (d)(1) that an error occurred because the sender provided incorrect or insufficient information and then requests that the provider send the remittance transfer again, and the provider agrees to that request, § 1005.33(c)(2)(iii) requires that the request be treated as a new remittance transfer and the provider must provide new disclosures in accordance with § 1005.31 and all other applicable provisions of subpart B. However, § 1005.33(c)(2)(iii) does not obligate the provider to agree to a sender's request to send a new remittance transfer.

12. Determining amount of refund. Section 1005.33(c)(2)(iii) permits the provider to deduct from the amount refunded, or applied towards a new transfer, any fees or taxes actually deducted from the transfer amount by a person other than the provider as part of the first unsuccessful remittance transfer attempt or that were deducted in the course of returning the transfer amount to the provider following a failed delivery. However, a provider may not deduct those fees and taxes that will ultimately be refunded to the provider. When the provider deducts fees or taxes from the amount refunded pursuant to § 1005.33(c)(2)(iii), the provider must inform the sender of the deduction as part of the notice required by either § 1005.33(c)(1) or (d)(1) and the reason for the deduction. The following examples illustrate these concepts.

i. A sender instructs a remittance transfer provider to send US$100 to a designated recipient in local currency, for which the provider charges a transfer fee of US$10 (and thus the sender pays the provider $110). The provider’s correspondent imposes a fee of US$15 that it deducts from the amount of the transfer. The sender provides incorrect or insufficient information that results in non-delivery of the remittance transfer as requested. Once the provider determines that an error occurred because the sender provided incorrect or insufficient information, the provider must provide the report required by § 1005.33(c)(1) or (d)(1) and inform the sender, pursuant to § 1005.33(c)(1) or (d)(1), that it will refund US$95 to the sender within three business days, unless the sender chooses to apply the US$95 towards a new remittance transfer and the provider agrees. Of the $95 that is refunded to the sender, $10 reflects the refund of the provider’s transfer fee, and $85 reflects the refund of the amount of funds provided by the sender in connection with the transfer which was not properly transmitted. The provider is not required to refund the US$15 fee imposed by the correspondent (unless the $15 will be refunded to the provider by the correspondent).

ii. A sender instructs a remittance transfer provider to send US$100 to a designated recipient in a foreign country, for which the provider charges a transfer fee of US$10 (and thus the sender pays the provider US$110) and an intermediary institution charges a lifting fee of US$5, such that the designated recipient is expected to receive only US$95, as indicated in the receipt. If an error occurs because the sender provides incorrect or insufficient information that results in non-delivery of the remittance transfer by the date of availability stated in the disclosure provided to the sender for the remittance transfer under § 1005.31(b)(2) or (3), the provider is required to refund, or reapply if requested and the provider agrees, $105 unless the intermediary institution refunds to the provider the US$5 fee. If the sender requests to have the transfer amount applied to a new remittance transfer pursuant to § 1005.33(c)(2)(iii) and provides the corrected or additional information, and the remittance transfer provider agrees to a resend remedy, the remittance transfer provider may charge the sender another transfer fee of US$10 to send the remittance transfer again with the corrected or additional information necessary to complete the transfer. Insofar as the resend is an entirely new remittance transfer, the provider must provide a prepayment disclosure and receipt or combined disclosure in accordance with, among other provisions, the timing requirements of § 1005.31(f) and the cancellation provision of § 1005.34(a).

iii. In connection with a remittance transfer, a provider imposes a $15 tax that it then remits to a State taxing authority. An error occurs because the sender provided incorrect or insufficient information that resulted in non-delivery of the transfer to the designated recipient. The provider may deduct $15 from the amount it refunds to the sender pursuant to § 1005.33(c)(2)(iii) unless the relevant tax law will result in the $15 tax being refunded to the provider by the State taxing authority because the transfer was not completed.

 

(d) Procedures if remittance transfer provider determines no error or different error occurred. In addition to following the procedures specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the remittance transfer provider shall follow the procedures set forth in this paragraph (d) if it determines that no error occurred or that an error occurred in a manner or amount different from that described by the sender.

(1) Explanation of results of investigation. The remittance transfer provider's report of the results of the investigation shall include a written explanation of the provider's findings and shall note the sender's right to request the documents on which the provider relied in making its determination. The explanation shall also address the specific complaint of the sender.

(2) Copies of documentation. Upon the sender's request, the remittance transfer provider shall promptly provide copies of the documents on which the provider relied in making its error determination.

Official Interpretation

33(d) Procedures if Remittance Transfer Provider Determines No Error or Different Error Occurred.

1. Error different from that alleged. When a remittance transfer provider determines that an error occurred in a manner or amount different from that described by the sender, it must comply with the requirements of both § 1005.33(c) and (d), as applicable. The provider may give the notice of correction and the explanation separately or in a combined form.

 

(e) Reassertion of error. A remittance transfer provider that has fully complied with the error resolution requirements of this section has no further responsibilities under this section should the sender later reassert the same error, except in the case of an error asserted by the sender following receipt of information provided under paragraph (a)(1)(v) of this section.

Official Interpretation

33(e) Reassertion of Error.

1. Withdrawal of error; right to reassert. The remittance transfer provider has no further error resolution responsibilities if the sender voluntarily withdraws the notice alleging an error. A sender who has withdrawn an allegation of error has the right to reassert the allegation unless the remittance transfer provider had already complied with all of the error resolution requirements before the allegation was withdrawn. The sender must do so, however, within the original 180-day period from the disclosed date of availability or, if applicable, the 60-day period for a notice of error asserted pursuant to § 1005.33(b)(2).

 

(f) Relation to other laws. (1) Relation to Regulation E § 1005.11 for incorrect EFTs from a sender's account. If an alleged error involves an incorrect electronic fund transfer from a sender's account in connection with a remittance transfer, and the sender provides a notice of error to the account-holding institution, the account-holding institution shall comply with the requirements of § 1005.11 governing error resolution rather than the requirements of this section, provided that the account-holding institution is not also the remittance transfer provider. If the remittance transfer provider is also the financial institution that holds the consumer's account, then the error-resolution provisions of this section apply when the sender provides such notice of error.

(2) Relation to Truth in Lending Act and Regulation Z. If an alleged error involves an incorrect extension of credit in connection with a remittance transfer, an incorrect amount received by the designated recipient under paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section that is an extension of credit for property or services not delivered as agreed, or the failure to make funds available by the disclosed date of availability under paragraph (a)(1)(iv) of this section that is an extension of credit for property or services not delivered as agreed, and the sender provides a notice of error to the creditor extending the credit, the provisions of Regulation Z, 12 CFR 1026.13, governing error resolution apply to the creditor, rather than the requirements of this section, even if the creditor is the remittance transfer provider. However, if the creditor is the remittance transfer provider, paragraph (b) of this section will apply instead of 12 CFR 1026.13(b). If the sender instead provides a notice of error to the remittance transfer provider that is not also the creditor, then the error-resolution provisions of this section apply to the remittance transfer provider.

(3) Unauthorized remittance transfers. If an alleged error involves an unauthorized electronic fund transfer for payment in connection with a remittance transfer, §§ 1005.6 and 1005.11 apply with respect to the account-holding institution. If an alleged error involves an unauthorized use of a credit account for payment in connection with a remittance transfer, the provisions of Regulation Z, 12 CFR 1026.12(b), if applicable, and § 1026.13, apply with respect to the creditor.

Official Interpretation

33(f) Relation to Other Laws.

1. Concurrent error obligations. A financial institution that is also the remittance transfer provider may have error obligations under both §§ 1005.11 and 1005.33. For example, if a sender asserts an error under § 1005.11 with a remittance transfer provider that holds the sender's account, and the error is not also an error under § 1005.33 (such as the omission of an EFT on a periodic statement), then the error-resolution provisions of § 1005.11 exclusively apply to the error. However, if a sender asserts an error under § 1005.33 with a remittance transfer provider that holds the sender's account, and the error is also an error under § 1005.11 (such as when the amount the sender requested to be deducted from the sender's account and sent for the remittance transfer differs from the amount that was actually deducted from the account and sent), then the error-resolution provisions of § 1005.33 exclusively apply to the error.

2. Holder in due course. Nothing in this section limits a sender's rights to assert claims and defenses against a card issuer concerning property or services purchased with a credit card under Regulation Z, 12 CFR 1026.12(c)(1), as applicable.

3. Assertion of same error with multiple parties. If a sender receives credit to correct an error of an incorrect amount paid in connection with a remittance transfer from either the remittance transfer provider or account-holding institution (or creditor), and subsequently asserts the same error with another party, that party has no further responsibilities to investigate the error if the error has been corrected. For example, assume that a sender initially asserts an error with a remittance transfer provider with respect to a remittance transfer alleging that US$130 was debited from his checking account, but the sender only requested a remittance transfer for US$100, plus a US$10 transfer fee. If the remittance transfer provider refunds US$20 to the sender to correct the error, and the sender subsequently asserts the same error with his account-holding institution, the account-holding institution has no error resolution responsibilities under Regulation E because the error has been fully corrected. In addition, nothing in this section prevents an account-holding institution or creditor from reversing amounts it has previously credited to correct an error if a sender receives more than one credit to correct the same error. For example, assume that a sender concurrently asserts an error with his or her account-holding institution and remittance transfer provider for the same error, and the sender receives credit from the account-holding institution for the error within 45 days of the notice of error. If the remittance transfer provider subsequently provides a credit of the same amount to the sender for the same error, the account-holding institution may reverse the amounts it had previously credited to the consumer's account, even after the 45-day error resolution period under § 1005.11.

 

(g) Error resolution standards and recordkeeping requirements. (1) Compliance program. A remittance transfer provider shall develop and maintain written policies and procedures that are designed to ensure compliance with the error resolution requirements applicable to remittance transfers under this section.

(2) Retention of error-related documentation. The remittance transfer provider's policies and procedures required under paragraph (g)(1) of this section shall include policies and procedures regarding the retention of documentation related to error investigations. Such policies and procedures must ensure, at a minimum, the retention of any notices of error submitted by a sender, documentation provided by the sender to the provider with respect to the alleged error, and the findings of the remittance transfer provider regarding the investigation of the alleged error. Remittance transfer providers are subject to the record retention requirements under § 1005.13.

Official Interpretation

33(g) Error Resolution Standards and Recordkeeping Requirements.

1. Record retention requirements. As noted in § 1005.33(g)(2), remittance transfer providers are subject to the record retention requirements under § 1005.13. Therefore, remittance transfer providers must retain documentation, including documentation related to error investigations, for a period of not less than two years from the date a notice of error was submitted to the provider or action was required to be taken by the provider. A remittance transfer provider need not maintain records of individual disclosures that it has provided to each sender; it need only retain evidence demonstrating that its procedures reasonably ensure the sender's receipt of required disclosures and documentation.

 

(h) Incorrect account number or recipient institution identifier provided by the sender. The exception in paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(D) of this section applies if:

(1) The remittance transfer provider can demonstrate that the sender provided an incorrect account number or recipient institution identifier to the provider in connection with the remittance transfer;

(2) For any instance in which the sender provided the incorrect recipient institution identifier, prior to or when sending the transfer, the provider used reasonably available means to verify that the recipient institution identifier provided by the sender corresponded to the recipient institution name provided by the sender;

(3) The provider provided notice to the sender before the sender made payment for the remittance transfer that, in the event the sender provided an incorrect account number or recipient institution identifier, the sender could lose the transfer amount. For purposes of providing this disclosure, § 1005.31(a)(2) applies to this notice unless the notice is given at the same time as other disclosures required by this subpart for which information is permitted to be disclosed orally or via mobile application or text message, in which case this disclosure may be given in the same medium as those other disclosures;

(4) The incorrect account number or recipient institution identifier resulted in the deposit of the remittance transfer into a customer's account that is not the designated recipient's account; and

(5) The provider promptly used reasonable efforts to recover the amount that was to be received by the designated recipient.

Official Interpretation

33(h) Incorrect Account Number Supplied.

1. Reasonable methods of verification. When a sender provides an incorrect recipient institution identifier, § 1005.33(h)(2) limits the exception in § 1005.33(a)(1)(iv)(D) to situations where the provider used reasonably available means to verify that the recipient institution identifier provided by the sender did correspond to the recipient institution name provided by the sender. Reasonably available means may include accessing a directory of Business Identifier Codes and verifying that the code provided by the sender matches the provided institution name, and, if possible, the specific branch or location provided by the sender. Providers may also rely on other commercially available databases or directories to check other recipient institution identifiers. If reasonable verification means fail to identify that the recipient institution identifier is incorrect, the exception in § 1005.33(a)(1)(iv)(D) will apply, assuming that the provider can satisfy the other conditions in § 1005.33(h). Similarly, if no reasonably available means exist to verify the accuracy of the recipient institution identifier, § 1005.33(h)(2) would be satisfied and thus the exception in § 1005.33(a)(1)(iv)(D) also will apply, again assuming the provider can satisfy the other conditions in § 1005.33(h). However, where a provider does not employ reasonably available means to verify a recipient institution identifier, § 1005.33(h)(2) is not satisfied and the exception in § 1005.33(a)(1)(iv)(D) will not apply.

2. Reasonable efforts. Section 1005.33(h)(5) requires a remittance transfer provider to use reasonable efforts to recover the amount that was to be received by the designated recipient. Whether a provider has used reasonable efforts does not depend on whether the provider is ultimately successful in recovering the amount that was to be received by the designated recipient. Under § 1005.33(h)(5), if the remittance transfer provider is requested to provide documentation or other supporting information in order for the pertinent institution or authority to obtain the proper authorization for the return of the incorrectly credited amount, reasonable efforts to recover the amount include timely providing any such documentation to the extent that it is available and permissible under law. The following are examples of reasonable efforts:

i. The remittance transfer provider promptly calls or otherwise contacts the institution that received the transfer, either directly or indirectly through any correspondent(s) or other intermediaries or service providers used for the particular transfer, to request that the amount that was to be received by the designated recipient be returned, and if required by law or contract, by requesting that the recipient institution obtain a debit authorization from the holder of the incorrectly credited account.

ii. The remittance transfer provider promptly uses a messaging service through a funds transfer system to contact institution that received the transfer, either directly or indirectly through any correspondent(s) or other intermediaries or service providers used for the particular transfer, to request that the amount that was to be received by the designated recipient be returned, in accordance with the messaging service's rules and protocol, and if required by law or contract, by requesting that the recipient institution obtain a debit authorization from the holder of the incorrectly credited account.

3. Promptness of Reasonable Efforts. Section 1005.33(h)(5) requires that a remittance transfer provider act promptly in using reasonable efforts to recover the amount that was to be received by the designated recipient. Whether a provider acts promptly to use reasonable efforts depends on the facts and circumstances. For example, if, before the date of availability disclosed pursuant to § 1005.31(b)(2)(ii), the sender informs the provider that the sender provided a mistaken account number, the provider will have acted promptly if it attempts to contact the recipient's institution before the date of availability.

 

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