Issued by FDIC
APPENDIX J TO PART 222 - INTERAGENCY GUIDELINES ON IDENTITY THEFT DETECTION, PREVENTION, AND MITIGATION*
Editor's Note: This section is added effective 1/1/2008, with a mandatory compliance date of 11/1/2008.
Section 222.90 of this part requires each financial institution and creditor that offers or maintains one or more covered accounts, as defined in § 222.90(b)(3) of this part, to develop and provide for the continued administration of a written Program to detect, prevent, and mitigate identity theft in connection with the opening of a covered account or any existing covered account. These guidelines are intended to assist financial institutions and creditors in the formulation and maintenance of a Program that satisfies the requirements of § 222.90 of this part.
I. The Program
In designing its Program, a financial institution or creditor may incorporate, as appropriate, its existing policies, procedures, and other arrangements that control reasonably foreseeable risks to customers or to the safety and soundness of the financial institution or creditor from identity theft.
II. Identifying Relevant Red Flags
(a) Risk Factors. A financial institution or creditor should consider the following factors in identifying relevant Red Flags for covered accounts, as appropriate:
(1) The types of covered accounts it offers or maintains;
(2) The methods it provides to open its covered accounts;
(3) The methods it provides to access its covered accounts; and
(4) Its previous experiences with identity theft.
(b) Sources of Red Flags. Financial institutions and creditors should incorporate relevant Red Flags from sources such as:
(1) Incidents of identity theft that the financial institution or creditor has experienced;
(2) Methods of identity theft that the financial institution or creditor has identified that reflect changes in identity theft risks; and
(3) Applicable supervisory guidance.
(c) Categories of Red Flags. The Program should include relevant Red Flags from the following categories, as appropriate. Examples of Red Flags from each of these categories are appended as Supplement A to this Appendix J.
(1) Alerts, notifications, or other warnings received from consumer reporting agencies or service providers, such as fraud detection services;
(2) The presentation of suspicious documents;
(3) The presentation of suspicious personal identifying information, such as a suspicious address change;
(4) The unusual use of, or other suspicious activity related to, a covered account; and
(5) Notice from customers, victims of identity theft, law enforcement authorities, or other persons regarding possible identity theft in connection with covered accounts held by the financial institution or creditor.
III. Detecting Red Flags
The Program’s policies and procedures should address the detection of Red Flags in connection with the opening of covered accounts and existing covered accounts, such as by:
(a) Obtaining identifying information about, and verifying the identity of, a person opening a covered account, for example, using the policies and procedures regarding identification and verification set forth in the Customer Identification Program rules implementing 31 U.S.C. 5318(l) (31 CFR 103.121); and
(b) Authenticating customers, monitoring transactions, and verifying the validity of change of address requests, in the case of existing covered accounts.
IV. Preventing and Mitigating Identity Theft
The Program’s policies and procedures should provide for appropriate responses to the Red Flags the financial institution or creditor has detected that are commensurate with the degree of risk posed. In determining an appropriate response, a financial institution or creditor should consider aggravating factors that may heighten the risk of identity theft, such as a data security incident that results in unauthorized access to a customer’s account records held by the financial institution, creditor, or third party, or notice that a customer has provided information related to a covered account held by the financial institution or creditor to someone fraudulently claiming to represent the financial institution or creditor or to a fraudulent website. Appropriate responses may include the following:
(a) Monitoring a covered account for evidence of identity theft;
(b) Contacting the customer;
(c) Changing any passwords, security codes, or other security devices that permit access to a covered account;
(d) Reopening a covered account with a new account number;
(e) Not opening a new covered account;
(f) Closing an existing covered account;
(g) Not attempting to collect on a covered account or not selling a covered account to a debt collector;
(h) Notifying law enforcement; or
(i) Determining that no response is warranted under the particular circumstances.
V. Updating the Program
Financial institutions and creditors should update the Program (including the Red Flags determined to be relevant) periodically, to reflect changes in risks to customers or to the safety and soundness of the financial institution or creditor from identity theft, based on factors such as:
(a) The experiences of the financial institution or creditor with identity theft;
(b) Changes in methods of identity theft;
(c) Changes in methods to detect, prevent, and mitigate identity theft;
(d) Changes in the types of accounts that the financial institution or creditor offers or maintains; and
(e) Changes in the business arrangements of the financial institution or creditor, including mergers, acquisitions, alliances, joint ventures, and service provider arrangements.
VI. Methods for Administering the Program
(a) Oversight of Program. Oversight by the board of directors, an appropriate committee of the board, or a designated employee at the level of senior management should include:
(1) Assigning specific responsibility for the Program’s implementation;
(2) Reviewing reports prepared by staff regarding compliance by the financial institution or creditor with § 222.90 of this part; and
(3) Approving material changes to the Program as necessary to address changing identity theft risks.
(b) Reports. (1) In general. Staff of the financial institution or creditor responsible for development, implementation, and administration of its Program should report to the board of directors, an appropriate committee of the board, or a designated employee at the level of senior management, at least annually, on compliance by the financial institution or creditor with § 222.90 of this part.
(2) Contents of report. The report should address material matters related to the Program and evaluate issues such as: the effectiveness of the policies and procedures of the financial institution or creditor in addressing the risk of identity theft in connection with the opening of covered accounts and with respect to existing covered accounts; service provider arrangements; significant incidents involving identity theft and management’s response; and recommendations for material changes to the Program.
(c) Oversight of service provider arrangements. Whenever a financial institution or creditor engages a service provider to perform an activity in connection with one or more covered accounts the financial institution or creditor should take steps to ensure that the activity of the service provider is conducted in accordance with reasonable policies and procedures designed to detect, prevent, and mitigate the risk of identity theft. For example, a financial institution or creditor could require the service provider by contract to have policies and procedures to detect relevant Red Flags that may arise in the performance of the service provider’s activities, and either report the Red Flags to the financial institution or creditor, or to take appropriate steps to prevent or mitigate identity theft.
VII. Other Applicable Legal Requirements
Financial institutions and creditors should be mindful of other related legal requirements that may be applicable, such as:
(a) For financial institutions and creditors that are subject to 31 U.S.C. 5318(g), filing a Suspicious Activity Report in accordance with applicable law and regulation;
(b) Implementing any requirements under 15 U.S.C. 1681c-1(h) regarding the circumstances under which credit may be extended when the financial institution or creditor detects a fraud or active duty alert;
(c) Implementing any requirements for furnishers of information to consumer reporting agencies under 15 U.S.C. 1681s-2, for example, to correct or update inaccurate or incomplete information, and to not report information that the furnisher has reasonable cause to believe is inaccurate; and
(d) Complying with the prohibitions in 15 U.S.C. 1681m on the sale, transfer, and placement for collection of certain debts resulting from identity theft.